garden of versailles

While it was possible to keep the fountains in view from the château running, those concealed in the bosquets and in the farther reaches of the garden were run on an as-needed basis. 1693, "Bosquet de l'Étoile ou la Montagne d'eau" by Jean Cotelle, ca. Finally, 78 additional pumps raised the water to the aqueduct, which carried the water to Versailles and Marly. It was one of the most incredible places I have ever seen. Johannes Vermeer, Woman Holding a Balance. Occupying the site of the Galerie d'Eau (1678), the Galerie des Antiques was designed in 1680 to house the collection of antique statues and copies of antique statues acquired by the Académie de France in Rome. In addition to the expansion of existing bosquets and the construction of new ones, there were two additional projects that defined this era, the Bassin des Sapins and the Pièce d'eau des Suisses. In the Gardens too, the Grand Trianon was built to provide Sun King with the retreat he wanted. Louis extended the existing hunting lodge, eventually making it his primary residence and seat of power. Each lobe of the island contained simple fountain; access to the island was obtained by two swing bridges. Versailles was designed as a palatial centre of government for an absolute monarch, Louis XIV. Each room contained a number of fountains that played with special effects. The areas were replanted with lime trees and were rechristened the Quinconce du Nord and the Quinconce du Midi (Marie 1968, 1972, 1976, 1984; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985). Sort by: Top Voted. During summer, every Saturday night discover the Gardens of Versailles differently with the Night Fountains shows. Versailles – France Probably the world's most famous garden, it was built for Louis XIV and designed by Andre Le Notre. ", Weber, Gerold. Bosquet de l'Arc de Triomphe Bosquet du Théâtre d'Eau is being recreated in 2014, with South Korean businessman and photographer Yoo Byung-eun being the sole patron, donating €1.4 million (~US$1.9 million) to the project.[40][41][42][43]. The statue that currently occupies the center of the Colonnade – the Abduction of Persephone – (from the Grande Commande of 1664) was set in place in 1696 (Marie 1968, 1972, 1976, 1984; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985). Orangerie Gardens at Versailles. The revolts of the Fronde – the word fronde also means slingshot – have been regarded as the origin of the use of the term "mud slinging" in a political context. Between 1686 and 1689, when the Nine Years' War began, one-tenth of France's military was at work on the Canal de l'Eure project. During the replantation of 1774–1775, both the bosquets were destroyed. Excavated in 1678, the Pièce d'eau des Suisses[31] – named for the Swiss Guards who constructed the lake – occupied an area of marshes and ponds, some of which had been used to supply water for the fountains in the garden. These additions were removed in 1708. A series of huge waterwheels was constructed in the river, which raised the water via a system of 64 pumps to a reservoir 48 metres above the river. Colonial Americas. Grotte des Bains d'Apollon, contemporary view. The link between Ovid's story and this episode from French history is emphasized by the reference to "mud slinging" in a political context. Common to any long-lived garden is replantation, and Versailles is no exception. The capacity of the Pompe – 600 m3 of water per day – alleviated some of the water shortages in the garden (Thompson, 2006). Despite the augmentation of water from the Bièvre, the gardens needed still more water, which necessitated more projects. [44] This involves restoring some of the parterres like the Parterre du Midi to their original formal layout, as they appeared under Le Nôtre. south of Versailles and at a level 26 m above the garden reservoirs. "Essais sur le Versailles de Louis XIV I: La distribution du château Versailles, le plan du domaine et de la ville.". 1693, "Vue de l'intérieur du bosquet du Labyrinthe" by Jean Cotelle, ca. In 1750, the year in which les jardins botaniques were constructed, the Jardinier-Fleuriste, Claude Richard (1705–1784), assumed administration of the botanical gardens. Between 1704 and 1709, bosquets were modified, some quite radically, with new names suggesting the new austerity that characterized the latter years of Louis XIV's reign. 1693, "Vue de l'Orangerie" by Jean Cotelle, ca. The Salle de Bal was inaugurated in 1685 with a ball hosted by the Grand Dauphin. The Versailles Gardens contain a selection of restaurants and cafés, but picnics are not permitted. [4], With Louis XIII's final purchase of lands from Jean-François de Gondi in 1632 and his assumption of the seigneurial role of Versailles in the 1630s, formal gardens were laid out west of the château. The Gardens of Versailles cover some 800 hectares of land and it was landscaped in the classic French formal style by André Le Nôtre. It was at the Petit Trianon that Louis XV fell fatally ill with smallpox; on 10 May 1774, the king died at Versailles. Dating from the time of Louis XIV and still using much of the same network of hydraulics as was used during the Ancien Régime, the fountains contribute to making the gardens of Versailles unique. ", Hedin, Thomas. 1693, "Parterre du Nord" by Étienne Allegrain, ca. Palacefrom 9:00 am to 5:30 pmclosed on Mondays, Estate of Trianonfrom 12:00 pm to 5:30 pmclosed on Mondays, Coach Galleryfrom 12:30 pm to 5:30 pmclosed on Mondays, + 33 1 30 83 78 00price of a call to France, Musical Fountains Shows and Musical Gardens, Conditions to access the estate of Versailles, Research centre of the Palace of Versailles. In their history, the gardens of Versailles have undergone no less than five major replantations, which have been executed for practical and aesthetic reasons. Bosquet du Marais - Bosquet du Chêne Vert – Bosquet des Bains d'Apollon – Grotte des Bains d'Apollon Etna, being consumed by volcanic lava. Fennebresque, Juste. In addition to the Orangerie, the Escaliers des Cent Marches,[33] which facilitated access to the gardens from the south, to the Pièce d'Eau des Suisses, and to the Parterre du Midi[34] were constructed at this time, giving the gardens just south of the château their present configuration and decoration. (Thompson, 2006), Catherine Pégard, the head of the public establishment which administers Versailles, has stated that the intention is to return the gardens to their appearance under Louis XIV, specifically as he described them in his 1704 description, Manière de Montrer les Jardins de Versailles. (Marie 1984; Verlet 1985), Rather than expend resources on modifying the gardens at Versailles, Louis XV – an avid botanist – directed his efforts at Trianon. [17] In 1664, Louis XIV commissioned a series of statues intended to decorate the water feature of the Parterre d'Eau. Other sources included a series of reservoirs located on the Satory Plateau south of the château (Verlet, 1985). (Marie, 1984; Thompson, 2006). (Thompson 2006). Last but not least, each project was reviewed by the King himself, who was keen to see “every detail”. Located at the junction of the Grand Canal and the junction of the northern transversal branch, Little Venice housed the caravels and yachts that were received from The Netherlands and the gondolas and gondoliers received as gifts from the Doge of Venice, hence the name. Designed by André Le Nôtre, the Grand Canal is the masterpiece of the Gardens of Versailles. In 1672, Jean-Baptiste Colbert devised a system by which the fountaineers in the garden would signal each other with whistles upon the approach of the king indicating that their fountain needed to be turned on. The marvel of the gardens of Versailles – then as now – is the fountains. In 1661 Louis XIV entrusted André Le Nôtre with the creation and renovation of the gardens of Versailles, which he considered just as important as the Palace. During this time André Le Nôtre collaborated with the likes of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Superintendant of Buildings to the King from 1664 to 1683, who managed the project, and Charles Le Brun, who was made First Painter to the King in January 1664 and provided the drawings for a large number of the statues and fountains. In 1704, three additional entrances to the Colonnade were added, which reduced the number of fountains from thirty-one to twenty-eight. As part of the replantation of the gardens ordered by Louis XVI during the winter of 1774–1775, the Bosquet du Théâtre d'Eau was destroyed and replaced with the unadorned Bosquet du Rond-Vert (Marie 1968, 1972, 1976, 1984; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985). A century later, in 1817, Louis XVIII ordered the Île du Roi and the Miroir d'Eau to be completely remodeled as an English-style garden. 1693, "Bosquet de l'Arc de Triomphe-vue depuis la Salle basse" by Jean Cotelle, ca. [3], In 1979, the gardens along with the château were inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List, one of thirty-one such designations in France. The replantations have allowed museum and governmental authorities to restore and rebuild some of the bosquets abandoned during the reign of Louis XVI, such as the Bosquet des Trois Fontaines, which was restored in 2004. Louis XIV developed the palace to royal dimensions, making it the center of his court and government. Bassin d'Apollon - Apollo Fountain, contemporary view, "Versailles, le jardin du Roi" by Raimundo de Madrazo y Garreta, 1914–1920, oil on canvas, 17 x 30 cm, Musée Lambinet. Creating the gardens was a monumental task. In 1870, a violent storm struck the area damaging and uprooting scores of trees, which necessitated a massive replantation program. In their history, the gardens of Versailles have undergone no less than five major replantations, which have been executed for practical and aesthetic reasons. Once the king passed a fountain in play, it would be turned off and the fountaineer would signal that the next fountain could be turned on (Thompson, 2006). The bosquet was renamed the Grotte des Bains d'Apollon (Marie 1968, 1972, 1976, 1984; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985). In the same year, Le Vau's Orangerie, located to south of the Parterrre d'Eau was demolished to accommodate a larger structure designed by Jules Hardouin-Mansart. With the exception of the state visit of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert in 1855, at which time the gardens were a setting for a gala fête that recalled the fêtes of Louis XIV, Napoléon III ignored the château, preferring instead the château of Compiègne (Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985). Bosquet de l'Encélade ", Börtz-Laine, Agenta. To meet the needs of the early expansions of the gardens under Louis XIV, water was pumped to gardens from ponds near the château, with the Clagny pond serving as the principal source. 1693. During the reign of Louis XVI, Hubert Robert remodeled the bosquet, creating a cave-like setting for the Marsy statues. Directed by Alan Rickman. View of Versailles Palace. Gardens, Fountains and Sculptures Particularly if you're visiting in the spring, summer or early fall, a long stroll through the elaborate formal gardens designed by famed landscape architect André Le Nôtre are in order. Thousands of men, sometimes even entire regiments, took part in this immense project. (Hedin 1992; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985), During this phase of construction, three of the garden's major bosquets were modified or created. [38] Between 1672 and 1677, Le Nôtre redesigned the Labyrinthe to feature thirty-nine fountains that depicted stories from Aesop's Fables. The laying out of the gardens required enormous work. The event, which officially was to celebrate his mother, Anne d'Autriche, and his consort Marie-Thérèse but in reality celebrated Louise de La Vallière, Louis' mistress, was held in May of that year. 1693, "Bosquet des trois fontaines-vue du côté" by Jean Cotelle, ca. "The evolution of the Parterre d'eau. The park of Versailles, the lake of the Swiss Guard and the Estate of Marly are open to walking from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Access to the Park is possible by the Queen's gate, the Saint Anthony gate and the Sailors gate. The storm damage at Versailles and Trianon amounted to the loss of thousands of trees – the worst such damage in the history of Versailles. As part of the reorganization of the garden that was ordered by Louis XIV in the early part of the 18th century, the Apollo grouping was moved once again to the site of the Bosquet du Marais – located near the Latona Fountain – which was destroyed and was replaced by the new Bosquet des Bains d'Apollon. Visitors looking through the central window in the Hall of Mirrors will see the Grande Perspective stretching away towards the horizon from the Water Parterre. The bosquet was completely remodeled in 1704 at which time it was rechristened Bosquet de l'Étoile (Marie 1968, 1972, 1976, 1984; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985). Water from the Grand Canal was pumped back to the reservoir on the roof of the Grotte de Thétys via a network of windmill-powered and horse-powered pumps. "Ein Kascadenprojekt für Versailles. Further along the east–west axis is the Bassin d'Apollon – the Apollo Fountain. In 1671, the bosquet was enlarged with a more elaborate system of paths that served to enhance the new central water feature, a fountain that resembled a mountain, hence the bosquets new name: Bosquet de la Montagne d'Eau. 1670, Apollo's horses groomed by two Tritons by Gaspard and Balthazard Marsy, ca. The Topiary Labyrinth, or Hedge Maze", "Ahae à Versailles, le privilège de l'argent", "Un jardin contemporain pour le bosquet du théâtre d'eau", "Bosquet du Théâtre d'Eau â€“ Château de Versailles", "France's aristocratic gardens weave a pathway from present to past", "A Little Chaos masks the true story of Versailles' incredible gardens", Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps, Prehistoric sites and decorated caves of the Vézère valley, Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France, Musée de Cluny – Musée national du Moyen Âge, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gardens_of_Versailles&oldid=992029946, Infobox mapframe without OSM relation ID on Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "View of the Bassin de Laoton, 1678" engraving by, "View of the Bassin d'Apollon" engraving by, "View of the garden facade from the Basin de Latone" by, 5.57 km Grand Canal (circumference; surface area 23 ha. From shop SkariStudio. [39] Citing repair and maintenance costs, Louis XVI ordered the Labyrinthe demolished in 1778. Between 1668 and 1674, a project was undertaken to divert the water of the Bièvre river to Versailles. Beginning in 1684, the Parterre d'Eau was remodeled under the direction of Jules Hardouin-Mansart. In that year, Louis Le Vau designed the Pompe, a water tower built north of the château. Salle des Festins - Salle du Conseil - Bosquet de l'Obélisque He succeeded in preventing further dispersing of the Grand Parc and threats to destroy the Petit Parc were abolished by suggesting that the parterres could be used to plant vegetable gardens and that orchards could occupy the open areas of the garden. This is evidenced in the clear definition of the main east–west and north–south axis that anchors the gardens' layout. ", Bottineau, Yves. Records indicate that late in the decade Claude Mollet and Hilaire Masson designed the gardens, which remained relatively unchanged until the expansion ordered under Louis XIV in the 1660s. Work on the gardens was started at the same time as the work on … In 1661 Louis XIV entrusted André Le Nôtre with the creation and renovation of the gardens of Versailles, which he considered just as important as the Palace. Château de Versailles. Yet, the very element that animates the gardens, water, has proven to be the affliction of the gardens since the time of Louis XIV. This water feature, with a surface area of more than 15 hectares, is the second largest – after the Grand Canal – at Versailles. (Marie 1968; Nolhac 1901, 1925; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985), Above and beyond the decorative and festive aspects of this garden feature, the Grand Canal also served a practical role. The palace itself is designed with elaborate architecture and attention to detail, but for many it's the gardens at Versailles that are worth visiting. Under the direction of Jules Hardouin-Mansart, the bosquet was completely remodeled in 1706. Versailles is the most famous garden in the world. In 1681, one of the most ambitious water projects conceived during the reign of Louis XIV was undertaken. ", Lighthart, Edward. Situated to the west of the Allée des Marmousets and replacing the short-lived Berceau d'Eau (a long and narrow bosquet created in 1671 that featured a water bower made by numerous jets of water), the enlarged bosquet was transformed by Le Nôtre in 1677 into a series of three linked rooms. The increasing demand for water and the stress placed on existing systems of water supply necessitated newer measures to increase the water supplied to Versailles. ", Marriage, Thierry. On weekends from late spring to early autumn, the administration of the museum sponsors the Grandes Eaux – spectacles during which all the fountains in the gardens are in full play. This episode from mythology has been seen by historians in reference as an allegory to the revolts of the Fronde, which occurred during the minority of Louis XIV. [5], In 1661, after the disgrace of the finance minister Nicolas Fouquet, who was accused by rivals of embezzling crown funds in order to build his luxurious château at Vaux-le-Vicomte, Louis XIV turned his attention to Versailles. [37]. • Versailles was designed as a palatial centre of government for an absolute monarch, Louis XIV. [12] Designed by André Le Nôtre, sculpted by Gaspard and Balthazar Marsy, and constructed between 1668 and 1670, the fountain depicted an episode from Ovid's Metamorphoses. These days, it’s difficult to imagine anything—certainly a garden—enduring for nearly 300 years. With the aid of Fouquet's architect Louis Le Vau, painter Charles Le Brun, and landscape architect André Le Nôtre, Louis began an embellishment and expansion program at Versailles that would occupy his time and worries for the remainder of his reign. "Entrée du Labyrinthe" by Jean Cotelle, ca. Originally, these statues were set in three individual niches in the grotto and were surrounded by various fountains and water features. A hunting lodge had been built there in the 1620s by Louis XIII. Exploring Versailles, Paris. ", Wiebenson, Dora. With the outbreak of the war, the project was abandoned, never to be completed. These two bosquets were first laid out in 1663. Replenishment of the water lost due to evaporation comes from rainwater, which is collected in cisterns that are located throughout the gardens and diverted to the reservoirs and the Grand Canal. At this time, the bosquet was rechristened Jardin du Roi (Marie 1968, 1972, 1976, 1984; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985). When he came of age, Louis began work on the family hunting lodge, ordered the addition of kitchens, stables, gardens, and residential apartments. Tour directions for the official guides have survived; they are discussed by Robert W. Berger and Thomas P. Hedin, For the relation of the imagery of the garden and the decor of the, Period sources include: (Anonymous, 1685); (Dangeau, 1854-60); (Félibien, 1703); (, The Clagny pond, which was located near the, Public Establishment of the Palace, Museum and National Estate of Versailles, "Versailles / Les bosquets : scènes du pouvoir", scan of Perrault's book at the Bibliothèque nationale de France, "Mazes and Labyrinths: Chapter XIV. Turf and eight rocaille fountains surrounding the central island was obtained by two storms that battered in... Fountain ; access to the gardens ' layout shortage problems was undertaken to the. $ 18.75 and friends one-third of the gardens with more and more,... 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