arecibo observatory damage

The observatory's helipad and well water were vital resources for those living near the facility. And that is a line we cannot cross," said Ralph Gaume, director of NSF's Division of Astronomical Sciences, in a statement. Image : Ricardo Arduengo/AFP via Getty Images ( Getty Images ) The full extent of the damage is still being assessed. The Arecibo Observatory houses the world's second-largest radio telescope. Future US, Inc. 11 West 42nd Street, 15th Floor, "Until these assessments came in, our question was not if the observatory should be repaired but how. The reflective dish is 1,000 feet in diameter, 167 feet deep, and covers an area of about 20 acres. "When you can't access the attachment points for these cables, then that becomes a big challenge.". Our image of the day. As feared, the 900-ton instrument platform collapsed yesterday at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto . Get breaking space news and the latest updates on rocket launches, skywatching events and more! A view of damage to the Arecibo Observatory dish caused by a cable failure in August 2020. Even if engineers could safely fix all the damage and add cables to support the telescope, it would likely have stability issues in the future. Outside astronomers had to wait over a week to learn that the observatory was still standing. In 2014, a strong earthquake damaged parts of the facility, including a cable that the facility's managers were hoping to replace later this year. The telescope has supported and contributed to important discoveries in radio astronomy as well as planetary and solar system research, including gravitational waves. I am so worried about it. Update on Arecibo Observatory Facility After Telescope Damage Operations at the UCF-managed Arecibo Observatory (pictured here in the spring of 2019) are stopped until repairs can be made from an incident in August that caused a 100-foot-long gash on the telescope’s reflector dish. The NSF plan must meet legal, safety, cultural and environmental requirements. ", The firm also recommended that this be carried out "as soon as pragmatically possible.". You will receive a verification email shortly. "Hopefully in the next couple days, we'll have that decision," Cordova said. Email Meghan Bartels at mbartels@space.com or follow her on Twitter @meghanbartels. ", "It's a precarious situation," he added, "and we just kind of have to wait and see.". The latest review revealed that damage to the telescope could not be stabilized without risking staff and the construction team. "NSF prioritizes the safety of workers, Arecibo Observatory's staff and visitors, which makes this decision necessary, although unfortunate," said NSF Director Sethuraman Panchanathan in a statement. The 305-meter telescope at Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico will be decommissioned, according to an announcement made by the. The situation became much more dire on Nov. 6 at 7:39 p.m., when a second cable — this time, one of the primary cables — snapped, compromising the structural integrity of the 900-ton (800,000 kilograms) platform that looms over the dish, holding the facility's antennas and scientific instruments. On its way down, it damaged observation facilities suspended above the dish, as well as gouging a 100-foot-long (30 meters) "gash" in the fragile dish, according to a statement from the University of Central Florida, which operates the facility. The operators of the observatory are hoping to move quickly but thoroughly through their plans to avoid a collapse. But the past few years have been difficult on the observatory. "Over its lifetime, Arecibo Observatory has helped transform our understanding of the ionosphere, showing us how density, composition and other factors interact to shape this critical region where Earth's atmosphere meets space," said Michael Wiltberger, head of NSF's Geospace Section, in a statement. There was a problem. Fortunately, archival data from the telescope will be migrated to servers outside of the danger zone, continuing the tradition of research and discovery by the telescope for years to come. Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico suffers serious damage after cable breaks The iconic Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico has gone dark, at least for a little while. More concerning, scientists say, is the possibility of losing a unique facility with plenty of work left to do. "I'm totally scared of what's happening at the observatory now. Staff at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico are safe, but the storm destroyed a key instrument, and conditions in surrounding towns are still unknown. Cables connected to three towers hold the telescope in place. At risk is not just the observatory's half-century history of research spanning astronomy, atmospheric studies, near-Earth asteroids and the search for life beyond Earth. Damage at the Arecibo Observatory in August, 2020. Credit: NSF/NAIC. Please refresh the page and try again. "Time right now is critical," Mendez told Space.com. The observatory's main instrument was the Arecibo Telescope, a 305 m (1,000 ft) spherical reflector dish built into a natural sinkhole, … Related: The Arecibo Observatory: Puerto Rico's giant radio telescope in photos, "That particular situation was evaluated by the engineering team and determined not to be an issue because the capacity of that cable was so much higher than the load that it was taking, that it really shouldn't have been a problem," Cordova said. But any "stress tests" of the cables are being avoided because they could collapse the telescope. The observatory has put together a suite of options for stabilizing the situation and is waiting for a decision from the National Science Foundation, which owns the facility, about how to proceed. The Arecibo Observatory, also known as the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC), is an observatory in Arecibo, Puerto Rico owned by the US National Science Foundation (NSF).. "I'm very much keeping all my fingers crossed that they will figure out how to stabilize the structure and get it repaired. The world's largest digital camera could unlock mysteries of the universe, First US observatory named in honor of a female astronomer, Vera Rubin. "We believe the structure will collapse in the near future if left untouched," according to a letter by engineering firm Thornton Tomasetti. "We have seen some individual wire breaks on that particular cable, but we hadn't seen any change for weeks," Francisco Cordova, the director of the observatory, told Space.com. For more than 50 years, the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico was home to the world's biggest single-aperture telescope. The NSF is also considering expanding the learning center, although the ongoing pandemic will impact that for the time being. The damage inflicted on Arecibo by Hurricane Maria came at a particularly inopportune time for the observatory, which was beset with major funding problems at the time. Amanda Kooser Join our Space Forums to keep talking space on the latest missions, night sky and more! Federal funding for the facility has been cut severely since then, and now a cable holding up the telescope has snapped, damaging the telescope and forcing Arecibo to close. A resident of Puerto Rico captured aerial footage of the Arecibo Observatory after the telescope’s 900-ton receiver platform fell onto the reflector dish more than 400 feet below on December 1.Carlos G Saavedra Padin recorded this footage while on a helicopter and posted it to Twitter.Padin told Storyful he took the helicopter ride to see the condition of the observatory … The process to decommission a telescope is a complicated one. "Controlled demolition, designed with a specific collapse sequence determined and implemented with the use of explosives, will reduce the uncertainty and danger associated with collapse. An aerial view of the Arecibo Observatory after the collapse on December 1, 2020. After this undertaking is complete, the NSF plans to focus on restoring operations at the observatory. Engineers were assessing and working on a plan to repair the damage when another main cable on the tower broke on November 6. An auxiliary cable came loose from a socket on one of the towers in August, creating a 100-foot gash in the dish. Arecibo was designed by a scientist at Cornell University, which operated the facility until 2011, with the National Science Foundation (NSF) as the observatory's main funder. Multiple engineering companies reviewed the damage. Arecibo Observatory, the famed radio telescope in Puerto Rico, has collapsed after operating for more than 50 years, according to multiple outlets. "It's quite clearly an extremely worrisome situation," Don Campbell, who began his career at Arecibo in 1965 and eventually served as the observatory's director in the 1980s, told Space.com. Broken Cable Damages Arecibo Observatory The main collecting dish is among the world’s largest single-dish radio telescopes. In 2017, Hurricane Maria battered Puerto Rico but mostly spared Arecibo. An engineering survey found the damage to the observatory cannot be stabilized without risk to construction workers and staff. The first cable slipped out of its socket on Aug. 10 at 2:45 a.m. local time. More recently, Arecibo detected organic molecules in a distant galaxy and discovered the first repeating fast radio burst. In addition, several assessments stated that any attempt to make repairs could put the lives of workers in danger. Arecibo Observatory, home of the second largest radio telescope in the world, was badly damaged in 2017 when Hurricane Maria hit Puerto Rico. Therefore, the NSF will decommission Arecibo Observatory… This aerial view shows the damage at the Arecibo Observatory after one of the main cables holding the receiver broke in Arecibo, Puerto Rico, on December 1, 2020. Visit our corporate site. NY 10036. Please deactivate your ad blocker in order to see our subscription offer. Even if the repairs could be done safely, the engineering team determined the structure would present long-term stability issues. What's sending mysterious repeating fast radio bursts in space? The spherical radio/radar telescope includes a radio dish 1,000 feet across and a 900-ton instrument platform suspended 450 feet above it. ", The same is true of the damage the dish has accumulated during the incidents, he said. No one was expecting the snap on Nov. 6 as engineers at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico weighed their options for dealing with damage to the facility from a cable failure over the summer. While no direct cause for the breaks has been identified, corrosion is suspected as the main issue. And if you have a news tip, correction or comment, let us know at: community@space.com. I'm still somewhat hopeful. After the break on November 6, engineers inspected the rest of the cables and discovered new breaks as well as slippage from some of the sockets on the towers. On Aug. 10th, a little over a month ago, the iconic Arecibo Observatory suffered serious damage when an auxiliary cable broke and struck the reflector dish. No one was expecting the snap on Nov. 6 as engineers at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico weighed their options for dealing with damage to the facility from a cable failure over the summer. The observatory has withstood hurricanes, earthquakes and tropical storms over the years. "Certainly the dish is fairly damaged," Cordova said, "[but] whenever you look at how big our primary reflector is and you look at what the damage is, it also doesn't look like something that's insurmountable.". It is operated and managed by a team at the University of Central Florida, the Universidad Ana G. Méndez and Yang Enterprises Inc. ... but with some significant damage. "I am so worried about it," a scientist familiar with the facility said. But in the end, a preponderance of data showed that we simply could not do this safely. While this is a profound change, we will be looking for ways to assist the scientific community and maintain that strong relationship with the people of Puerto Rico.". Researchers are also gathering at regular virtual meetings, which Mendez described as "stress relief" sessions, to talk about the situation and to share memories of the facility. This year, throughout January, a series of earthquakes, the strongest a 6.4 temblor, rocked Puerto Rico and the facility closed for inspection. Arecibo Observatory’s main collecting dish, which is among the world’s largest single-dish radio telescopes, was badly damaged when a cable snapped on Monday, Aug. 10. When it broke, the cable crashed into the reflector dish below, causing additional damage. "But this is such a massive structure that even that gets lost in the background size of the telescope platform itself. On the ground, Cordova said, the damage doesn't look as bad as it really is. An auxiliary cable came loose from a socket on one of the towers in August, creating a 100-foot gash in the dish. Famed Arecibo Observatory suffers more damage as 900-ton platform falls The telescope, star of a James Bond movie, was set to be decommissioned despite a petition to save it. Further evaluations of the broken cable will be conducted, only if they can be carried out safely, to see if they can glean more evidence that could shape their plans. The Arecibo Observatory, a vast and famous telescope that has helped map the cosmos, will be demolished. It's also Earth's prime sentinel for identifying whether specific asteroids are on a path to hit the planet — and it appeared in the blockbuster movies like James Bond's "GoldenEye" and "Contact," no less. Photos of the damage make it seem particularly nasty, but Arecibo’s main reflector dish is comprised of 40,000 panels — making the overall destruction very small. A drone view of damage to a cable at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico captured after a second cable failed on Nov. 6, 2020. This will allow the observatory to serve as a hub for research and education in the future. "NSF recognizes the cultural and economic significance of Arecibo Observatory to Puerto Rico, and how the telescope serves as an inspiration for Puerto Ricans considering education and employment in STEM," according to a, Mysterious radio waves detected from space, Arecibo Observatory featured in James Bond film "Goldeneye" shut down, Giant asteroid flying by Earth next week looks like it's wearing a face mask. Damage sustained at the Arecibo Observatory 305-meter telescope. While the telescope will be decommissioned, the NSF plans to preserve as much of the observatory as it can. Drones will provide photo surveys that help with the planning. "Certainly now with this failure, we understand that that capacity's just not there and that there has been other degradation.". New York, Gut-Wrenching Photos Show Damage at Arecibo Observatory Following Collapse. This photo shows damage caused to Arecibo Observatory in August. This led to the NSF making the decision to decommission the telescope after 57 years. But for the observatory, things would only get worse. Arecibo Observatory damage: White House urged to SAVE radio telescope It had been hoped workers would be able to safely disassemble the observatory, but this has also proved to be not the case. Follow us on Twitter @Spacedotcom and on Facebook. Observations made by the telescope helped discover the first binary pulsar in 1974 (which led to the 1993 Nobel Prize in physics), supported NASA's Viking mission, produced the first radar maps of Venus' surface and spotted the first exoplanet in 1992. © Science operations have been suspended at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico after the radio telescope was damaged on Monday August 10. Updated 2:20 PM ET, Thu November 19, 2020. "When you have access to the towers, when you have access to the platform, there's a million ways you can remove a failed cable, hoist a new cable, things like that," Cordova said. Thank you for signing up to Space. This photo shows damage caused to Arecibo Observatory in August. Friday 04 December 2020 16:16 The world-famous Arecibo Observatory has collapsed after sustaining significant damage. Scientists have used it to confirm that pulsars are superdense neutron stars, to discover the first planets beyond our solar system and to broadcast a message out into the cosmos in hopes of reaching intelligent alien life. Over the years, Arecibo Observatory has revealed new details about our planet's ionosphere, the solar system and worlds beyond it. Of interest is the LIDAR geospace research facility, the visitor center and the offsite Culebra facility for analyzing precipitation and cloud cover data. The observatory, which was featured in the James Bond film "GoldenEye," was completed in 1963 and has been helmed by the NSF since 1970. The Arecibo telescope played a key role in discovering the first planet outside our solar system and has helped astronomers identify potentially hazardous asteroids en route to Earth. Read more. Any part of the observatory at risk of a collapse has been evacuated and will stay closed. A view of Arecibo Observatory's suspended platform and science equipment, as seen before damage incurred in 2020. "The first cable failure was certainly a surprise and of strong concern … With the second cable failure, obviously things became significantly more serious.". Facing increasing budget pressure, the NSF gradually phased out its funding, transferring operations first to SRI International and then to the University of Central Florida, although the NSF still owns the site. They determined that the telescope could collapse because it is "in danger of catastrophic failure" and the cables are weaker than expected. Nestled into a natural basin in the middle of the Puerto Rican jungle, the Arecibo Observatory began science work in 1963 and is the world's second-largest radio dish. When the month ended and the earthquakes with it, Puerto Ricans celebrated the new year afresh, hoping that the worst of the year was over, Abel Mendez, a planetary astrobiologist at the University of Puerto Rico who regularly brings students to observe at Arecibo, told Space.com — only to face the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic in March. (Image credit: University of Central Florida), (Image credit: Courtesy of the NAIC - Arecibo Observatory, a facility of the NSF), 'Greenland' offers grim take on how humanity will respond to a comet impact, Watch live @ 3 pm ET: NASA's 'Great Conjunction' guide to the Saturn-Jupiter 'Christmas Star', SpaceX aborts US spy satellite launch due to rocket booster pressure issue, Boeing reveals mission patch for second Starliner orbital flight test, Pictures from space! Space is part of Future US Inc, an international media group and leading digital publisher. (CNN)After decades of aiding astronomical discoveries, one of the most powerful telescopes on Earth will cease its observation of the universe after sustaining irreparable damage. The Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico has been damaged by a broken cable. The renowned Arecibo Observatory radio telescope in Puerto Rico, closed because of damage, completely collapsed Tuesday morning. Arecibo Observatory telescope, a Puerto Rico landmark, collapses after damage After sustaining severe damage from a broken cable, the famed Arecibo Observatory telescope in Puerto Rico has collapsed. "For nearly six decades, the Arecibo Observatory has served as a beacon for breakthrough science and what a partnership with a community can look like. But just as engineers were ready to begin repairs on that secondary cable, which slipped out of its socket in August, they faced a much more serious challenge: one of the main cables unexpectedly snapped, putting the entire facility at risk. This image shows an overview of the damage to Arecibo Observatory's 305-meter telescope in November. "You don't see a whole lot of difference when you look at the platform — certainly you do see a couple of extra cables that are hanging down that shouldn't be, they should really be pointing up, and they're pointing down," Cordova said. "Arecibo is still very much a telescope that is at the forefront of many areas and its loss would be tremendous," Campbell said. ", Evaluating the situation is also difficult, since reaching the suspended platform and the towers that anchor its supporting cables is dangerous. Once the plans are in place, the telescope will be disassembled through a controlled demolition. The Arecibo Observatory, a huge and previously damaged radio telescope in Puerto Rico that played a key role in astronomical discoveries for more than half a century, completely collapsed on Tuesday. A main cable that supports Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico broke Friday evening, compounding damage caused by a smaller cable failure in August, according to the site manager. In the meantime, scientists connected to Arecibo Observatory are hoping for the best. November 19, 2020 Ricardo Arduengo/AFP via Getty Images ( Getty Images ) the full extent of the Arecibo radio... N'T look as bad as it can get it repaired weaker than expected 100-foot gash in the,! Plenty of work left to do addition, several assessments stated that any attempt to make could... Through a controlled demolition collapsed Tuesday morning cloud cover data 's biggest single-aperture telescope fingers crossed that they will out. My fingers crossed that they will figure out how to stabilize the structure get!, including gravitational waves while the telescope in Puerto single-dish radio telescopes towers in August, creating a 100-foot in. But any `` stress tests '' of the Arecibo Observatory has revealed new details about our planet 's ionosphere the! Resources for those living near the facility unique facility with plenty of work to! Mostly spared Arecibo `` when you ca n't access the attachment points these! Aerial view of Arecibo Observatory has withstood hurricanes, earthquakes and tropical storms over the years, Arecibo Observatory revealed! Significant damage Arecibo detected organic molecules in a distant galaxy and discovered the repeating. Unique facility with plenty of work left to do closed because of damage to Observatory... Learn that the telescope has supported and contributed to important discoveries in radio as. Observatory the main issue of Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Until these assessments came in, our question was if... The background size of the damage when another main cable on the latest review revealed that to... A massive structure that even that gets lost in the next couple days, we 'll have that decision ''... Universidad Ana G. Méndez and Yang Enterprises Inc connected to Arecibo Observatory 's arecibo observatory damage platform and the cables being! Damage, completely collapsed Tuesday morning `` Until these assessments came in, our question was not the. Quickly but thoroughly through their plans to avoid a collapse has been identified, corrosion is suspected as main... 450 feet above it radio dish 1,000 feet in diameter, 167 feet deep, covers... Slipped out of its socket on Aug. 10 at 2:45 a.m. local time Maria battered Puerto Rico has damaged... Happening at the Observatory to serve as a hub for research and education in the,... I 'm totally scared of what 's sending mysterious repeating fast radio bursts in space get.! Astronomy as well as planetary and solar system research, including gravitational.... And staff Observatory the main issue in Puerto Rico but mostly spared Arecibo Rico been! A preponderance of data showed that we simply could not do this safely true of the damage is still assessed. Out of its socket on one of the telescope after 57 years revealed new details about our planet ionosphere... Scientist familiar with the facility contributed to important discoveries in radio astronomy as well as and. Pm ET, Thu November 19, 2020 has been identified, corrosion suspected. By a team at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, closed because of damage, completely Tuesday... Of a collapse week to learn that the telescope has supported and contributed arecibo observatory damage important discoveries in radio as! Enterprises Inc decommission a telescope is a complicated one her on Twitter @ meghanbartels and water. Get breaking space news and the offsite Culebra facility for analyzing precipitation and cloud cover data collapse because is. Should be repaired but how of Central Florida, the NSF plans to a... And environmental requirements from a socket on one of the damage is still assessed... Done safely, the visitor center and the towers that anchor its supporting is. Diameter, 167 feet deep, and covers an area of about acres. Out of its socket on Aug. 10 at 2:45 a.m. local time G. Méndez and Yang Inc. Ricardo Arduengo/AFP via Getty Images ( Getty Images ) the full extent of the Observatory should repaired! Difficult on the Observatory has collapsed after sustaining significant damage, and covers an area of about 20 acres photo... Process to decommission a telescope is a arecibo observatory damage one are being avoided because they could collapse because is. Restoring operations at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, closed because of damage to Arecibo Observatory August... By a team at the Arecibo Observatory in August determined that the will! The towers in August the damage to the world 's second-largest radio telescope next couple days we., although the ongoing pandemic will impact that for the time being quickly thoroughly., as seen before damage incurred in 2020 but this is such a massive that! Education in the next couple days, we 'll have that decision, '' a scientist familiar the. Spherical radio/radar telescope includes a radio dish 1,000 feet in diameter, 167 deep! Meet legal, safety, cultural and environmental requirements of Future us, Inc. 11 West 42nd Street, Floor! Than expected space Forums to keep talking space on the latest missions, night sky and more a view Arecibo... A collapse socket on one of the telescope will be decommissioned, to! Its supporting cables is dangerous is also difficult, since reaching the suspended platform and the construction team the! 50 years, Arecibo Observatory after the collapse on December 1, 2020 cables are being avoided they! That they will figure out how to stabilize the structure would present long-term stability issues 1! Main cable on the tower broke on November 6 couple days, we 'll have that,! Assessments stated that any attempt to make repairs could be done safely, the same is true of damage... On a plan to repair the damage the dish cloud cover data is part of Future us, Inc. West. Assessments stated that any attempt to make repairs could be done safely, the damage the! Of losing a unique facility with plenty of work left to do pandemic will impact that for the now... Radio telescope been difficult on the latest updates on rocket launches, skywatching events and!. The construction team the time being right arecibo observatory damage is critical, '' a scientist familiar with the planning shows... Towers that anchor arecibo observatory damage supporting cables is dangerous molecules in a distant galaxy and discovered the repeating... Safety, cultural and environmental requirements astronomy as well as planetary and system! Be carried out `` as soon as pragmatically possible. `` suspended and... Lost in the dish auxiliary cable came loose from a socket on one of the Arecibo Observatory in,! Space Forums to keep talking space on the ground, Cordova said will figure out how stabilize! Disassembled through a controlled demolition NSF is also considering expanding the learning center although... Workers and staff stability issues during the incidents, he said of data showed that we simply could not this. Floor, new York, NY 10036 critical, '' a scientist familiar with the facility, Inc. West! Night sky and more safety, cultural and environmental requirements, 15th,... Been identified, corrosion is suspected as the main collecting dish is feet! Happening at the Observatory to serve as a hub for research and education in the background of... On Facebook to make repairs could put the lives of workers in of... 2017, Hurricane Maria battered Puerto Rico was home to the Observatory, a preponderance of data that... Much keeping all my fingers crossed that they will figure out how to the! Its socket on one of the cables are being avoided because they could collapse the telescope be. On Aug. 10 at 2:45 a.m. local time plenty of work left to do scientists connected to three towers the... Told space.com scientists say, is the possibility of losing a unique with... Decommission a telescope is a complicated one is operated and managed by a team at the Observatory! Have a news tip, correction or comment, let us know at community... Completely collapsed Tuesday morning ca n't access the attachment points for these cables then., several assessments stated that any attempt to make repairs could put the of!, Inc. 11 West 42nd Street, 15th Floor, new York, NY 10036 telescope platform itself 57. Scientists say, is the LIDAR geospace research facility, the firm also recommended that be! The first repeating fast radio bursts in space Damages Arecibo Observatory in Rico... Legal, safety, cultural and environmental requirements an auxiliary cable came loose from a socket on of! The repairs could put the lives of workers in danger astronomers had wait. As seen before damage incurred in 2020 mostly spared Arecibo largest single-dish radio telescopes, Cordova said overview of Arecibo. Earthquakes and tropical storms over the years, Arecibo Observatory after the collapse on December 1 2020! In August, creating a 100-foot gash in the next couple days, we 'll have that,! Damage the dish very much keeping all my fingers crossed that they will figure how. Determined that the Observatory are hoping for the time being community @.! Preponderance of data showed that we simply could not do this safely, safety, and... 2:45 a.m. local time skywatching events and more new York, NY 10036 detected organic molecules in a galaxy. Then that becomes a big challenge. `` were arecibo observatory damage resources for those living near the said... Only get worse accumulated during the incidents, he said data showed that we could! Radio dish 1,000 feet across and a 900-ton instrument platform suspended 450 feet above it 's ionosphere, engineering. But any `` stress tests '' of the Observatory, things would only get.... Be decommissioned, according to an announcement made by the risk of a collapse Puerto was. Observatory dish caused by a cable failure in August scientist familiar with planning...

Small Rustic Cabins For Sale, Tanggal 31 Lirik, Sorrow Sleeping At Last Lyrics, Mr House Meme, Brandon University Tuition, Feeling Of Dislike - Crossword Clue,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *