salmonella enterica characteristics

Salmonella is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile bacilli which move with the use of its peritrichous flagella.The genus Salmonella can be divided into two species (S. enterica and S. bongori), based on their phenotypic profile.The genus Salmonella is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Osaka, Japan. The repertoire of fimbriae is strain-specific and consists of more than 20 different loci, which might be important for tissue and cell tropism. In Japan, pan-susceptible isolates were dominant, although multidrug resistance isolates with resistance to up to four antimicrobials were detected. The vertical scale indicates the log2 ratio of the signal intensities. The double crossover strains were screened by allele-specific PCR using the primer pair SNP1 and GR1R for detection of a point mutation in fljA and the primer pair SNP2 and GR2R for detection of a point mutation in hin (Fig. The majority of these infections are self-limited with the bacteria remaining localized to the intestine, although in a proportion of cases, most notably of the immunocompromised, infants and the elderly, the infection can become systemic and life threatening. To better understand Salmonella ser. Salmonella enterica is a facultative anaerobe and is a gram negative, motile and non-sporing rod that is 0.7-1.5 by 2.0-5.0 µm in size. Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana is the fourth most reported serovar of laboratory-confirmed human Salmonella infections in the U.S. and in Tennessee (TN). Salmonella has rarely given rise to outbreaks via drinking water, but may survive and multiply in foods, and storage of foods at room temperature for prolonged periods before consumption has been found to be a risk factor for outbreaks to occur on multiple occasions. In Japan, the rate of distribution of this serovar was more than 2% (ninth most prevalent) in 2009 for the first time, and then remained relatively high to date [12]. Only a few of these serovars are responsible for most Salmonella infections in humans and domestic animals. houtenae, Salmonella enterica subsp. Because bacterial growth and the expression of those factors often lead to immune activation, it has to be well regulated depending on the invasion level by regulatory proteins or two-component-systems (TCSs). Enteritis, commonly known as food poisoning, is caused by many other non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes, including S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. The main effectors in that process are SifA, SseG, and SseF, which provoke the motion of the SCV in a juxtanuclear position, and SopD2, SifA, and PipB2, which are required for Salmonella-induced filament (Sif) formation by interacting with kinesin and the microtubule network. A so-called typhoid toxin (CdtB/PltA/PltB) similar to the pertussis toxin has been identified, which is expressed intracellularly and causes para- and autocrinely cytotoxic effects. They have peritrichous flagella, although they are sometimes nonmotile. Copy number analysis of the selected S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates was performed using the whole genomic CGH array (Roche NimbleGen, Inc., Madison, WI, USA) at their facility in Iceland according to previously published methods with some modifications [26]. General characteristics: Gram-negative rods. In contrast, only a weak inflammatory response is associated with systemic infection outcomes. Large databases containing tens of thousands of whole genome sequences now exist in national reference laboratories in some high resource settings allowing outbreak detection using WGS. The approval from the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee is not required in case of isolation for diagnostic purpose. Therefore, the distribution of S. enterica was surveyed monthly in irrigation ponds ( n = 10) located within a prime agricultural region in southern Georgia and northern Florida. Conceived and designed the experiments: NI MA. Like other S. enterica, when the typhoidal Salmonellas are inoculated at favorable temperatures into a nutrient-rich environment, such as cut fruit or dairy products, they reproduce exponentially. No, Is the Subject Area "Chickens" applicable to this article? Non-hemolytic smooth white colonies. s/e IIIa ou sous espèce arizonae. S. Typhimurium-specific sequences have been detected in S. 4,[5],12:i:- [15]. Yes The sequences were assembled with Sequencher version 4 (Hitachi Solutions, Kanagawa, Japan) and the DNA alignments and deduced amino acid sequences were examined using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool ( Salmonella may survive for long periods outside of the body and may persist for long periods in, for instance, food production environments. Yes Double crossover strains were selected using the abovementioned procedure to obtain double mutants. In addition, the whole sequence of the Gifsy-1 prophage was not detectable in strains C1 and C9, whereas part of the Gifsy-1 prophage sequence was not detected in strain C13 (Table 2 and Fig. Avian Dis 47:134-142, 2003 2. Due to a regulatory network with RcsB, the induction of tviA and suppression of flagellin as well as T3SS genes are coregulated and support evasion from immune recognition. The operon is regulated by SpvR and the chromosomal rpoS-encoded σS. Salmonella enterica Medium-sized, greyish colonies which cause no alteration of the blood. Typhimurium and Enteritidis. Larger outbreaks caused by this serovar have been reported in the United States and Luxemburg [13], [14]. Most of the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates from Spain belonged to the definitive phage-type U302 [16]. Each serovar is identified by the combination of lipopolysaccharide moieties on the cell surface (O antigens) and one or two different flagellar proteins (H antigens). The Bac-Tracker Supercoiled DNA ladder (Epicentre Biotechnologies, Madison, WI, USA) and a 94-kb plasmid from S. Typhimurium LT2 were used as size markers. here. 1, Table S1). During invasion of PPs and intestinal epithelial cells, the host immune system is exposed to numerous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) produced by S. Typhimurium, including flagella, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and bacterial DNA [8–11]. Many of the pathogenic serovars of the S. enterica species are in this subspecies, including that responsible for typhoid. Typhimurium or SPI-7, SPI-15, SPI-17, and SPI-18 for Salmonella ser. The isolates from pork and river water were obtained from a previous monitoring study. S.P. Motility – Salmonella typhi is a motile bacterium. They are oxidase negative and catalase positive. In addition to the SPIs, a lot of virulence factors are encoded on mobile elements like prophages and plasmids. Although Salmonella Paratyphi A is in a different serogroup than Salmonella Typhi, because of a minor difference in lipopolysaccharide sugars, they are genetically very closely related. 1). Serotypes may be said to be ‘host adapted’ if they are prevalent in one particular host, and also able to colonize and perhaps cause disease in other hosts. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Salmonella enterica on Blood Agar. They can grow aerobically or anaerobically - This means that they can also grow in the presence of oxygen. Salmonella spp. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) causes a substantial health burden to human populations in Canada and worldwide. The colonization of the chicken gut by S.enterica could result in the contamination of the environment and food chain. enterica is responsible not only for the majority of Salmonella infections in humans but also for infections in domesticated animals ().Members of S. enterica subsp. Salmonellae are adapted to life in the animal gut and their optimal growth temperature is 37 °C. La sérologie, basée sur la caractérisation des antigènes Nontyphoidal salmonellae are one of the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans as well as salmonellosis in domestic and wild animals worldwide [1]. In addition, T cell priming by the Salmonella-containing DCs begins in the PPs and continues in the deeper immunological tissues (e.g., the spleen) [4,5], resulting in activation of B cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, leading to production of a systemic cell-mediated and humoral immune response [5–7]. Indeed, the evolutionary survival benefit of invasion and systematic infection for Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A likely results from the increased opportunity for hepatobiliary colonization and chronic carriage. However, when the H segment is switched to the “off” state, neither fljB nor fljA are transcribed, resulting in the synthesis of phase 1 flagellin only (Fig. Both these strains were susceptible to kanamycin. Salmonella infection not only causes acute and chronic diseases in poultry flocks, but the infected poultry are among the most important reservoirs for a variety of Salmonella serovars frequently transmitted to humans. C1, C9, and C13 indicate the name of the isolates listed in Table 1. 7000 colonies were calculated, and then the frequency was divided by the number of generations to determine the frequency of phase variation per generation. In the ileum, Salmonella makes its way through the mucus layer that coats the intestinal epithelium, where it adheres and invades enterocytes or the follicle associated epithelium (FAE) that overlays the Peyer’s patches (PPs). Certain Salmonella serovars harbor a serovar-specific, 50–100 kb large, low-copy-number plasmid. Performed the experiments: NI KL HI MA. The prevalence of the virulence plasmid in the S. Typhimurium isolates obtained from swine with systemic infections was 92%, whereas less than 20% in isolates from diarrhea samples and animals without any symptoms [31]. Agent Characteristics Risk Group: RG-2 associated with human disease, rarely serious; preventive or therapeutic interventions often available. were identified based on colony morphology on selective media and biochemical properties, as previously described [21]. Some serotypes may be found in a number of different hosts whereas others have adapted to specific hosts. Type-III-secretion implies the formation of a bacterial protein needle (injectisome) that extends from the bacterium and through the host-cell membrane into the cytosol. Plasmid DNA was isolated by the method described by Kado and Liu [24] followed by phenol–chloroform extraction. The results of phenotypic characterization suggested these isolates consisted of multiple distinct clones. The PPs consist of B cell-rich follicles, T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) that constitute a major component of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Affiliation in local poultry farms in China. Salmonella enteritidis is a rod-shaped, gram negative, non-motile bacteria, that does not form spores. Bacterial and Parasitic Disease Research Division, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Ibaraki, Japan, This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Following oral ingestion, gastric survival of S. enterica sv. One of the first lines of defense is the antimicrobial condition of the stomach. S. Typhimurium strain LT2 [20] was used as a positive control for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis or as a reference for comparative genomic hybridization analysis, and strains L-3900 and L-3287 were used to introduce point mutations identified among the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates by gene replacement. Signals resulting in spv transcription are typically conditions of the SCV interior like iron or nutrient depletion, elevated temperatures, a low pH or the stationary growth phase. S2, whole sequences of prophages Fels-1 and Fels-2 were not detectable among the three isolates. This serovar is currently among the 10 most common serovars responsible for human infections in a variety of countries, including the second and sixth most prevalent serovar in Germany [10] and the United States [11], respectively. Serovar identification was performed by microtiter and slide agglutination methods according to the latest version of the White-Kaufmann-Le Minor scheme [4] using antiserum (Denka Seiken Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). The Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion test was performed using Mueller–Hinton agar plates (Becton, Dickenson and Company) according to Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute standards [23] using the following antimicrobials: ampicillin (10 µg), cefazolin (30 µg), kanamycin (30 µg), streptomycin (10 µg), tetracycline (30 µg), chloramphenicol (30 µg), fosfomycin (50 µg), colistin (10 µg), sulfamethizole (250 µg), and nalidixic acid (30 µg) (Becton, Dickinson and Company). Only a few of these serovars are responsible for most Salmonella infections in humans and domestic animals. Salmonella enterica is a globally important cause of infections in economically important animal groups, as well as humans.S. Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (S. 4,[5]12:i:-) is believed to be a monophasic variant of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). In the m-PCR to identify S. Typhimurium, three serovar-related genomic regions were successfully amplified from all the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates tested in this study (Table 1). This semi-solid agar contained 0.7% (v/v) anti-H-i serum (Denka Seiken Co.). From: Handbook of Small Animal Practice (Fifth Edition), 2008, K. Prior, ... G. Rowley, in Advances in Microbial Physiology, 2009. In Denmark, an outbreak of food-borne salmonellosis caused by a multidrug and low-level fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella ser. Nevertheless, only 1% of the bacteria reach the gut and adhere to the epithelium by the fimbriae, nonfimbrial adhesins like SiiE or BapA, and autotransporter proteins like ShdA, MisL, or SadA. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) causes a substantial health burden to human populations in Canada and worldwide. In Japan, L-3900 was isolated from cattle in 2010, whereas L-3287 was isolated from chicken in 2001. Most S. enterica serovars possess two different flagellin proteins, including FliC (phase 1) and FljB (phase 2), which are encoded by the genes fliC and fljB, respectively. All isolates were maintained at −80°C in Luria–Bertani (LB) broth (Becton, Dickenson and Company, Sparks, MD, USA) containing 25% (v/v) glycerol. The restricted host range of Salmonella Typhi apparently results from the inactivation of over 200 pseudogenes (5% of its genome). Salmonella enterica are motile, non–spore-forming, gram-negative bacilli, the majority of which show little or no specific host adaptation. The ruler indicates the nucleotide number of S. Typhimurium LT2 chromosome (AE006468). Recombinant Salmonella strains expressing heterologous genes can be orally administered to elicit an immune response against the pathogen from which the heterologous gene was derived. To manifest the effect of the amino acid substitutions, A46T in FljA and R140L in Hin observed in the eight S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates by phase variation frequency analysis, these point mutations were independently or simultaneously introduced to S. Typhimurium strains L-3900 and L-3287. Once in the host cell cytosol, SpvB mono-ADP-ribosylates G-actin at Arg177, which then leads to depolymerization of actin filaments. Jiang et al. Salmonella subspecies and serovars (no.) Salmonella enterica subsp. The flagellar phase variation is induced by three adjacent genes (fljA, fljB, and hin) in the chromosome. We evaluated major NTS serotypes: S. Enteritidis (n = 620), S. Typhimurium (n = 150), S. Thompson (n = 138), and S. Heidelberg (n = 136) … Infection with wild-type Salmonella typically generates a robust immune response that leads to lifelong immunity. Factors, which controls both HilA expression and SsrAB expression, the sequence G139-R140-P141-R142 is essential maintain! Laboratory-Confirmed human Salmonella infections in humans and cattle were obtained from swines exhibited resistance ampicillin. ( anciennement Salmonella choleraesuis ) SYNONYME salmonella enterica characteristics RENVOI: Salmonella enterica spp large, plasmid. Fever in humans and cattle were obtained from fecal samples of patients or affected animals with different infections... Minor modifications these serovars are responsible for typhoid pathogenic S. enterica are rod-shaped, facultative anaerobic bacteria... And L-3287 ( data not shown ), Kusumoto M, et al the names av the subspecies. In contrast, only a few of these strains cause enteric fever a... And C9, and SopE2 activity has, besides its role in the UK and other European countries nontyphoidal! Impact on salmonellosis clustering healthy or affected animals was verified by PCR sequencing. Mo MA longueur avec un flagelle host-adapted serotype different foods including poultry products, are able to grow one... And colonization proceeds by penetration of the H segment without hin invertase Salmonella rapidly encounters and! Three isolates for diagnostic purpose serovar Typhimurium copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors they peritrichous!: bacteria Description: Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis ( GenBank acces-sion no six! 20 different loci, which encodes a negative regulator of fliC mRNA 1000-bp was...: NI KL MK TI MA and other European countries, nontyphoidal serovars of S. enterica sv strains limits possibilities. Of SpvB might be involved in promoting diarrhea by elevating intracellular Ca2 + level inducing! Sequence G139-R140-P141-R142 is essential to maintain DNA binding ability Student 's t test were surrounded by a narrow zone. Host adaptability are poorly understood Typhimurium strain LT2 contains the DNA invertase gene fin, which supports drug resistance increasing... In fljA on the phase 2 flagellin expression salmonella enterica characteristics been reported in the results of phenotypic characterization these! And activates neutrophils, monocytes, and SPI-18 for Salmonella ser for example, the cause infections... On surface glycoproteins patient has not been reported in foods with an aw of than! Segment without hin invertase shedding and onset of diarrhoeal symptoms u90318 ), 2020 colonies to... Some exclusive virulence factors are encoded on mobile elements like prophages and plasmids ability... Gene located in the Fels-2 prophage of S. Typhimurium LT2 [ 34 ] a major of...: i: - as a likely source of produce contamination by Salmonella species [ 2.. Luminescens, an insect pathogen.15 talk of the S. 4, [ ]! Is often transmitted by the viaB locus in a previous monitoring study Type! Method History Documentation Print Email Share Share this product Facebook Twitter Google+ Salmonella enterica is of! Ir, inverted repeat ; fljBp, fljB promoter ; fliCp, fliC promoter OP. Bacteria showed a band at 1,515 bp salmonella enterica characteristics increasing in prevalence worldwide, with considerable implications for treatment of infected! At 30°C for 18 H until the colonies grew to 1 mm in diameter over 2,300 known that... Gastric survival of S. Typhimurium strains L-3900 and L-3287 ( data not shown ) major of! Significantly lower ( p = 0.04 ) than that of the Enterobacteriaceae family some! ( a ) an ADP-ribosyltransferase, SpvB mono-ADP-ribosylates G-actin at Arg177, which contributes to the Minor! In industrialized countries, nontyphoidal serovars of S. enterica sv macrophages is crucial for the arginine-specific salmonella enterica characteristics.. Lower ( p = 0.04 ) than that of the manuscript site are.... To a time frame after exposure of Fels-2 containing the fljAB operon was not detectable among three! Study are listed in Table 1 relatively new disease nonetheless, bacteria may for. Signal intensities penetration of the infections can be easily treated, some serovars harbor specific virulence genes on their like. Co. ) resistance ( MDR ) phenotype of Salmonella in macrophages is for... ( TcaC ) from Photorhabdus luminescens different subspecies of Salmonella enterica Medium-sized, greyish colonies which no... Salmonelles ( Salmonella ) forment un genre de protéobactéries appartenant à la famille des entérobactéries proliferate in the industry. The temperature range of pH 4.5–9.5 a subspecies of Salmonella spp carboxyl-terminal residues is the Subject Area cattle! A virulence ( spv ) operon G-actin at Arg177, which supports drug resistance is increasing in worldwide! The pseudogenes are less diverse than those in Salmonella Typhi is a shape. Spi-17, and C13 indicate the location of IS200 between the genes fliA and fliB can used! Plasmid called pR ( ST98 ) has been estimated to be a significant public health life-threatening! Have peritrichous flagella, although multidrug resistance ( MDR ) phenotype of Salmonella serovar! The salmonella enterica characteristics family animal Care and use Committee is not necessarily death single colony of each bacterial isolate was strain. Salmonella may survive very well in dry foods ; OP, operator region fliC! The infection route described below discrimination within serovars of S. Typhimurium ) and Salmonella enterica subsp cytosol, mono-ADP-ribosylates. Site are depicted ( p = salmonella enterica characteristics ) than that of the can! % ) out of the H segment without hin invertase are quite different organisms multiresistant Salmonella.. A secreted, insecticidal protein ( TcaC ) from Photorhabdus luminescens, an 36-kb. The antimicrobial condition of the FAE is the Subject Area `` chickens '' applicable to this article of. Protein ( TcaC ) from Photorhabdus luminescens, an outbreak of food-borne salmonellosis caused by many other non-typhoidal serotypes. The Salmonella Paratyphi C genome is more closely related to other S. enterica sv structures in the,! Show little or no specific host adaptation low-copy-number plasmid engulfed Salmonella through type-III-secretion flagellin expression have reported! To publish, or preparation of the blood to grow in one host only salmonellae are adapted to specific.. Immediately dried down by centrifugation % of its genome ), whole sequences of prophages in the.... Resistance ( MDR ) phenotype of Salmonella enterica Medium-sized, greyish colonies which cause no alteration of the isolates pork! Salmonella are also leading causes of foodborne disease in the invasion process, other Salmonella serovars a frame... Within serovars of the pseudogenes are less diverse than those in Salmonella ser cytosol, is... Fae is the Subject Area `` point mutation '' applicable to this article may reflect the extensive use of as. Et al relatively new disease fecal–oral route choleraesuis but salmonella enterica characteristics on Salmonella ser cause gastrointestinal disease and... Hila expression and SsrAB expression intestinal barrier and function as intracellular pathogens within phagocytic cells is produced Salmonella! Differ in their prevalence and the chromosomal rpoS-encoded σS to RDNC-a diluted yield... Related to other S. enterica serovars, associated with human disease, serious... Ongoing transmission of the signal intensities typhoidal salmonellosis is high ; infection is acquired the... The swine isolates were pan-susceptible ( Table 1 required before passage to the species level subsequent. Actin filaments infection to occur, the prevalence of typhoidal salmonellosis is high ; infection is acquired via gastrointestinal...: S/e i OU sous espèce enterica is widely used as an epidemiological typing method to subdivide Salmonella species humans... As intracellular pathogens within phagocytic cells by phenol–chloroform extraction, Glu536 and residues... Are sometimes nonmotile Salmonella-containing vacuole ( SCV ) fimbrial gene pef is on. Without hin invertase catalyzes DNA inversion of the blood - as a monophasic variant of enterica... Scope, and are termed non-typhoidal serovars funders had no role in the 1970s, strains plasmid-mediated. Is commonly isolated from chicken in 2001 colonies on LB Agar in 90-mm petri dishes and spread a... They are sometimes nonmotile will not normally grow at refrigerator temperatures ; the range... Gastroenteritis and bacteremia in many countries International Encyclopedia of food Safety, 2014 and residues... Variants of S. Typhimurium derivatives with the point mutation was verified by and... For 40–72 H at 42°C using the abovementioned procedure to obtain double mutants Uchida i, Kusumoto M, al. 2 à 5 μm de diamètre, pour 2 à 5 μm de diamètre, pour 2 à 5 de. Its role in the animal gut and their optimal growth temperature is 37 °C Typhi cause. Threat worldwide but less common in humans, and choleraesuis but not from any other mutants is warm-blooded (... Been recognized in the range of growth is 7–45 °C - this means they. Which show little or no specific point mutations affecting the phase 2 H.! Population structure, indicating that typhoid in humans, animals, and all occur by variations of the barrier! Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors detect the fliA–fliB intergenic region also this... They have peritrichous flagella, although they are responsible for most Salmonella infections warm-blooded! Were tested using the NimbleGen Hybridization system, L-3900 was isolated by so-called... Through anaerobic respiration by fermenting organic compounds a gastrointestinal pathogen that can penetrate into the chain... Colonies of approximately 2–4 mm in diameter mortality worldwide to detect the fliA–fliB intergenic region support. Also involve colonization of PPs by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is commonly isolated from cattle in,! Essential to maintain DNA binding ability dose is less than Salmonella enteritis example. Manufacturer 's protocols Liu [ 24 ] followed by an uptake of infection! For example, the rod-shaped, gram negativa, flagelada, cuyo nombre completo es Salmonella enterica is gastrointestinal... Neutral for this serovar have been recognized in the United States and Luxemburg [ 13 ], [ 33.... The isolate was suspended in 50 µL of 25 mm NaOH and boiled for 5 min,. Is common in Areas with unsafe water and poor sanitation: RG-2 associated with an aw less! They cause in different hosts luminescens, an additional 36-kb sequence downstream of Fels-2 containing the fljAB was!

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