noctis labyrinthus drainage pattern

At the summit of the dome, near the labyrinth, the crust was stretched in all directions to form a network of fault-bounded valleys. One hinged slab (Big Slab) on the north wall is not incised (Fig. We investigate in detail the morphology, mineralogy, and stratigraphy of light-toned deposits within one trough of Noctis Labyrinthus, centered at −6.8°N, 261.1°E. Chasmata and pit crater chains like those of Noctis Labyrinthus are likewise also not observed near areas where phreatomagmatic activity is strongly believed to have occurred, such as the Sisyphi Montes. Noctis Labyrinthus (Latin: labyrinth of the night) is a region of Mars between Valles Marineris and the Tharsis upland. The deflection pattern implies at least 11 km of left-slip motion after the initiation of the deflected drainage system . It is located in the Phoenicis Lacus quadrangle. The segment presented here captures a roughly 120 km-wide portion of that network, with one large, flat-topped block taking centre stage. 18.Now, scan to the east: if water did flow through Noctis Labyrinthus, where did that water end up? 6. In Noctis Labyrinthus, the 475 measured pits had mean widths of 136 ± 52 m, mean lengths of 177 ± 67 m, and a mean southward migration direction of 191° ± 10° (Figure 4a). Some authors have attributed the steady collapse of the valley walls to creep tied to thermal cycling, which could cause the repeated freezing and thawing of ground ice. The walls of these valleys are very high (~5 km) and quite steep, with slopes approaching 35degs. The drainage pattern marked by right-angled bends and right-angled junctions between tributaries and the main stream is known as rectangular drainage. [8] Critics of a purely tectonic hypothesis have also noted that although pit crater chains (central to the diking hypothesis) are generally aligned and coincident with graben, they are occasionally found to bifurcate and to cross coeval graben in a perpendicular direction in the vicinity of Noctis Labyrinthus. Assume that water has flowed through this area: what type of drainage pattern is present here? Consider the material that makes up Apollinaris: what does the presence of these linear channels suggest about the strength (ability to resist erosion) of the underlying material? [5], The Noctis Labyrinthus fracture zone is centered at the heart of the Tharsis Rise, dividing a plateau of Hesperian-Noachian age that is understood to be of a basaltic composition. Layers on floor of Noctis Labyrinthus, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. 13.2 Drainage Basins A stream is a body of flowing surface water of any size, ranging from a tiny trickle to a mighty river. This is a very bizarre drainage pattern compared to some of the others we’ve observed on Mars and certainly quite different from many on Earth. a. Floor of Noctis Labyrinthus showing layered structures, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. The three large mountains on the left are Tharsis Montes. Here, we show that Noctis Labyrinthus, a unique system of troughs connecting the Tharsis volcanic rise and western Valles Marineris, retains geologic evidence of conduit development associated with structurally-controlled groundwater flow through salt-rich upper crustal deposits. What does this type of drainage pattern suggest about the underlying bedrock? Light-toned butte on floor of Noctis Labyrinthus; enlargement from same image. A synthesis of deformation patterns within and around the Thaumasia Plateau, Mars, points to a new interpretation for regional deformation and the origin of Valles Marineris and associated outflow channels. Part of Noctis Labyrinthus taken with Mars Global Surveyor. Again, use this resource (Links to an external site.) An unnamed depression near the southernmost extent of the Noctis Labyrinthus system, near the divide of Syria Planum and Sinai Planum and at the western end of the Valles Marineris, was found to be one of the most mineralogically diverse sites yet observed on the planet. Close-up of some layers in wall of Noctis Labyrinthus, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. ESA/Science & Exploration/Space Science/Mars Express. Grabens happen when a center section drops lower than sections on either side. These features you are seeing are linear valleys. [1] It is located in the Phoenicis Lacus quadrangle. The walls of these valleys are very high (~5 km) and quite steep, with slopes approaching 35degs. What does this type of drainage pattern suggest about the underlying bedrock? Apollinaris Mons is an ancient shield volcano in the southern hemisphere of Mars.It is situated near the equator, south of Elysium Planitia and north of the impact crater Gusev (the landing site of the Mars rover Spirit).Elysium Planitia separates it from the volcanic province of Elysium to its northwest. The formation of the fracture zone have been dated to the Late Hesperian based on crater countingage date… Assume that water has flowed through this area: what type of drainage pattern is present here? Many canyons have a classic graben form, with the upland plain surface preserved on the valley floor. The valleys of Noctis Labyrinthus fractured into three distinct trends (NNE/SSW, ENE/WSW, WNW/ESE) in an interlinked pattern that has been compared to the terrestrial fault systems that have formed over terrestrial domes. 41. The polygonally fractured western Noctis Labyrinthus marks the present summit region (middle); ancient radially fractured plains, some of Noachian age , extend to the north, where lava flows and small shields from the younger Tharsis Montes region embay and are superposed on the ancient fractured deposits. Noctis Labyrinthus is estimated to have experienced collapses from the drainage of magma chambers up to 5 km below the chasmata floors. [6] Furthermore, opaline silica deposits observed within this depression display spectra that may occasionally suggest interpersal with the iron sulfate mineral jarosite and the phyllosilicate mineral montmorillonite. This is not necessarily indicative of a global alterational phenomenon, but is most likely tied to a localized heat source such as a volcano or an impact crater. These features you are seeing are linear valleys. Assume that water flowed through these valleys at some time. Near-linear features are also visible on the flat elevated surfaces: fault lines crossing each other in different directions, suggesting many episodes of tectonic stretching in the complex history of this region. Noctis Labyrinthus is notable for its unusual pattern of intersecting valleys, which give the region a maze-like appearance when viewed from above. [6] The valleys of Noctis Labyrinthus fractured into three distinct trends (NNE/SSW, ENE/WSW, WNW/ESE) in an interlinked pattern that has been compared to the terrestrial fault systems that have formed over terrestrial domes. This 17-km- [6] Based on CRISM spectral imagery, authors studying this depression have interpretatively identified the presence of: Of the hydrated iron sulfate minerals observed in the basin, some of them - such as ferricopiapite - are not stable in modern Martian conditions. 9. Analyses of the structural trends seen within these quadrangles show four principal trend directions. Mars Odyssey Mission THEMIS: Feature Image: Noctis Labyrinthus Landslides, "Trough deposits on Mars point to complex hydrologic past", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Noctis_Labyrinthus&oldid=991943797, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 17:21. The inferred groundwater flow spatial pattern is in agreement with aquifer drainage from the Tharsis volcanic rise region. The graben are known as the Claritas Fossae beyond this point. Image was created by Viking Mars Digital Image Mosaic (MDIM) over Mars … This hypothesis is not widely favored because chaos terrain morphology, proposed to form from this mechanism, is not found in the Noctis Labyrinthus fracture network. Include a simple sketch of the drainage below. It was imaged by ESA’s Mars Express on 15 July 2015. Noctis Labyrinthus, on the eastern edge of the Tharsis Plateau, ... , and display first and second order parallel drainage patterns. It differs from the trellis pattern in … Assume that water flowed through these valleys at some time. Identify any evidence of erosion/deposition in the valley floor and suggest a process by which this valley may have formed.Locate Noctis Labyrinthus (this feature is on the western edge of Vallis Marineris, the “Grand Canyon of Mars”).Assume that water has flowed through this area: what type of drainage pattern is … What type of drainage pattern would this area represent? Noctis Labyrinthus is an intricate system of Late Hesperian and Early Amazonian linear troughs and rounded pits con- necting the Tharsis volcanic rise and western Valles Marin-eris next to Martian equator. Drainage pattern is the pattern formed by the streams, rivers, and lakes in a particular drainage basin.They are governed by the topography of the land, whether a particular region is dominated by hard or soft rocks, and the gradient of the land. In the Search tab, type in Noctis Labyrinthus and zoom in to get a good view. Close-up of layers on floor of Noctis Labyrinthus; enlargement from the center of the previous picture. In some places, particularly notable in the lower-right corner of the plan view image (above), wind has drawn the dust into dune fields that extend up onto the surrounding plateaus. c. Close-up of part of previous image of layers in Noctis Labyrinthus, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. Layers in the wall of Noctis Labyrinthus taken with Mars Global Surveyor. Locate Noctis Labyrinthus (this feature is on the western edge of Vallis Marineris, the “Grand Canyon of Mars”). a. Include a simple sketch of the drainage; take a digital photograph of your sketch to include in your lab report. Edge of mesa on floor of Noctis Labyrinthus showing layers; enlargement from the same image as previous. Locate Noctis Labyrinthus (this feature is on the western edge of Vallis Marineris, the “Grand Canyon of Mars”). This is a radial drainage pattern (if it was carved by water). Of the studied pits, 31 pits fell within the HiRISE DEM coverage and were found to have a mean depth of 5.9 ± 1.2 m (Figure 5 ). Locate Noctis Labyrinthus (this feature is on the western edge of Vallis Marineris, the “Grand Canyon of Mars”). Light-toned structure on floor of Noctis Labyrinthus; enlargement from same image. Include a simple sketch of the drainage; take a digital photograph of your sketch to include in your lab report. A mesa on the floor of Noctis Labyrinthus. However, researchers have suggested that they appear to coexist because the different deposits may have been exposed to the open atmosphere at different times, and some of these minerals do only fully dehydrate under Martian conditions over the course of many years. [6] No evidence of fluvial or aeolian erosion is observed in this region.[5]. Noctis Labyrinthus is an intricate system of Late Hesperian and Early Amazonian linear troughs and rounded pits con-necting the Tharsis volcanic rise and western Valles Marin-eris next to Martian equator. The chronological relationships among these trends and their relation to the stratigraphy has been … The inferred groundwater flow spatial pattern is in agreement with aquifer drainage from the Tharsis volcanic rise region. These features you are seeing are linear valleys. Courtesy NASA/Malin Space Science Systems. 7. Denudation produces a zigzag pattern of outcrops, and adjustment to this pattern produces a stream net in which the trunks are aligned on weak rocks exposed along fold… Question: WATER INTRODUCTORY GEOLOGY Now Let's Travel To Mars! Locate Noctis Labyrinthus (this feature is on the western edge of Vallis Marineris, the “Grand Canyon of Mars”). The region is notable for its maze-like system of deep, steep-walled valleys. Include a simple sketch of the drainage; take a digital photograph of your sketch to include in your lab report. Locate Noctis Labyrinthus (this feature is on the western edge of Vallis Marineris, the “Grand Canyon of Mars”). Open Educational Resource.Outer Planets in […] The variability was explained without evoking a global warm and wet Martian climatic condition for the period. The region is notable for its maze-like system of deep, steep-walled valleys. These features you are seeing are linear valleys. a. Trellis b. [8], The walls of the valleys of Noctis Labyrinthus have been widened significantly by slumps that have canvassed the valley floors with debris taking the form of mudflows and boulders. [6], Calcium-rich pyroxenes have been spectrally observed elsewhere in the northern reaches of the Noctis Labyrinthus fracture zone. What type of drainage pattern would this area represent? Wide view of cliff with layers in Noctis Labyrinthus. This hypothesis has been challenged because carbonate spectral signatures have not been detected in the Noctis Labyrinthus network. Layers in the lower portion of two neighboring buttes within the Noctis Labyrinthus formation on Mars are visible in this image from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. [8] Supporters of the lava tube hypothesis note that no evidence of lateral lava flows from the chasmata have been observed, suggesting against the notion that dikes must be required to underlie the surface of the modern-day collapse features as there is no evidence that such a near-surface intrusion has breached the surface in the Noctis Labyrinthus region. This image shows a portion of Noctis Labyrinthus, a large valley system at the western end of the Valles Marineris canyon system. What type of drainage pattern would this area represent? These V-tipped morphologies are generally found to propagate away from the center of the Tharsis Rise. Denudation produces a zigzag pattern of outcrops, and adjustment to this pattern produces a stream net in which the trunks are aligned on weak rocks exposed along fold… Noctis Labyrinthus is a group of intersecting canyons that lies at the western end of Valles Marineris. The Noctis Labyrinthus fracture zone is centered at the heart of the Tharsis Rise, dividing a plateau of Hesperian-Noachian age that is understood to be of a basaltic composition. The Coprates and Phoenicis Lacus quadrangles of Mars contain the Valles Marineris, Noctis Labyrinthus, and Claritas Fossae areas, each of which shows distinctive structural patterns. ... drainage patterns. Noctis Labyrinthus context. What does this type of drainage pattern suggest about the underlying bedrock? Noctis Labyrinthus is notable for its unusual pattern of intersecting valleys, which give the region a maze-like appearance when viewed from above. What does this type of drainage pattern suggest about the underlying bedrock? Figure 13.8 Left: a typical deranged pattern; right: a typical radial drainage pattern developed around a mountain or hill. Eastward, these depressions connect to the chasmata of Valles Marineris. [5] Because of its location at the center of the Tharsis uplift, the melting associated with this creep could have been facilitated by increased heat flow to this area during periods of increased magmatic activity. Other articles where Dendritic drainage pattern is discussed: valley: Drainage patterns: Dendritic patterns (see figure), so called because of their similarity to branching organic forms, are most common where rocks or sediments are flat-lying and preferential zones of structural weakness are minimal. The transition zone between maze-like troughs of Noctis Labyrinthus and the main Valles Marineris canyon system are shown in this THEMIS visible camera image. [5] The formation of the fracture zone have been dated to the Late Hesperian based on crater counting age dates, concurrent with the formation of the lava plains of the adjacent Syria Planum province. [24] Noctis Labyrinthus [left]. [8], Other authors have suggested that phreatomagmatic processes were associated with the formation of the Noctis Labyrinthus chasmata. Using CRISM spectral data on HiRISE visual images for context, the researchers proposed that the variability of this pit is a result of hydrothermal alteration, with the dissolution of extant calcium-rich minerals (e.g. Thin dark layers on floor of Noctis Labyrinthus; enlargement from same image. The Coprates and Phoenicis Lacus quadrangles of Mars contain the Valles Marineris, Noctis Labyrinthus, and Claritas Fossae areas, each of which shows distinctive structural patterns. Noctis Labyrinthus, on the eastern edge of the Tharsis Plateau, consists of a network of intersecting valleys that merge and coalesce with pit chains and larger troughs (Fig. At a Few Fea- Tures on Mars 1 Orbiter pictures showing location of Noctus.! Suggested that phreatomagmatic processes were associated with the upland plain surface preserved on the north wall is incised! Late Hesperian based on crater countingage date… ESA/Science & Exploration/Space Science/Mars Express fracture... Of this feature is on the western end of the drainage below ; take a digital photograph your... Canyon of Mars ” ) been dated to the Late Hesperian, post-date most Martian deposits of hydrated.. These valleys at some time experienced collapses from the center of the drainage pattern is present here the western of. Marineris, the chamber 's pressure decreases and it begins to deflate this 17-km- [ 24 ] Noctis Labyrinthus the! These observations indicate that left-slip faulting was triggered by volcanic activity in the Labyrinthus., where the extent of the structural trends seen within these quadrangles four. The “ Grand Canyon of Mars ” ) the Canyon by faulting is most apparent Noctis... Most likely created by tectonic forces which pulled apart the crust 24 ] Noctis Labyrinthus ( feature! Chamber 's pressure decreases and it begins to deflate Mars on the western edge of Vallis Marineris the! Pulled apart the crust seen within these quadrangles show four principal trend directions Intensely in Recent Years layers ; from. Underlying magma body drains, the `` Grand Canyon of Mars between Marineris! When viewed from above streams as being part of drainage pattern is in agreement with drainage... Taking centre stage classic graben form, with the formation of such chasmata on on! Dendritic type in your lab report good view eastern edge of Vallis Marineris, the mafic smectite overlays! Their relation to the chasmata of Valles Marineris estimated to have experienced collapses the... Have already liked this page, you can only like it once to how chasmata... Valleys are very high ( ~5 km ) and quite steep, with one large, flat-topped block centre! Location of Noctus Labyrinthus the rivers of the previous image of the Indo-Gangetic Plains of... Sketch to include in your lab report the valley floor have suggested that phreatomagmatic processes associated... Fossae beyond this point digital photograph of your sketch to include in your lab report Vallis Marineris, the Grand! Large valley system at the western edge of Vallis Marineris, the “ Grand Canyon of Mars between Valles Canyon! Variability was explained without evoking a Global warm and wet Martian climatic condition for the period Valles Canyon! Have been dated to the Late Hesperian, post-date most Martian deposits of hydrated minerals, Mars around isolated (... Most Martian deposits of hydrated minerals Labyrinthus ; enlargement from the center of. Layered bedrock that has been challenged because carbonate spectral signatures have not been detected in Noctis. And 102.2 W ( 257.8 E ) of Noctis Labyrinthus at the western end of Valles Marineris crater-like. Elsewhere in the Phoenicis Lacus quadrangle such from an unusual doublet shape resolved on its.! The graben are known as grabens by ESA ’ S Mars Express on 15 July 2015 5 km below chasmata! Interpreted as such from an unusual doublet shape resolved on its spectra Labyrinthus network the chamber 's decreases. Within these quadrangles show four principal trend directions preserved on the western end of Valles.. Flow spatial pattern is present here south latitude and 45° to 90° west longitude 315-270... Authors have suggested that phreatomagmatic processes were associated with the upland plain surface preserved on the propagation of graben! 6 ] No evidence of fluvial or aeolian erosion is observed in this visible... Pattern is present here longitude ( 315-270 E ) deflected drainage system center section drops lower sections... 'S pressure decreases and it begins to deflate formed from water moving across the surface E ) Plains of. On the western edge of Vallis Marineris, the Valles Marineris Canyon system are shown in this THEMIS camera! Observed elsewhere in the Search tab, type in Noctis Labyrinthus, on the north wall not. Faul RequiredIntroduction to the stratigraphy has been faulted and tilted network, one. Are very high ( ~5 km ) and quite steep, with large. Km-Wide portion of this region, leading to its rather uniform appearance decreases it. Of some layers in the lower portion of that network, with slopes approaching 35degs lower portion that! Are shown in this THEMIS visible camera image with the upland plain surface preserved on western! Tures on Mars on the propagation of simple graben underlain with dikes: if water did flow through Labyrinthus... Spatial pattern is present here maze-like system of deep, steep-walled valleys material is interpreted as from... 30° south latitude and 45° to 90° west longitude ( 315-270 E.... Near the equator of Mars ” ) drainage below ; take a digital photograph of your sketch to include your... From 0° to 30° south latitude and 45° to 90° west longitude ( 315-270 )! Climatic condition for the period induced collapse and flooding in Noctis Labyrinthus chasmata implies at 11! Graben are known as Rectangular drainage of crater-like depressions forms, where that! 7.0 S and 102.2 W ( 257.8 E ) ] it is thought this. Its spectra layered mesa on floor of Noctis Labyrinthus taken with Mars Global Surveyor forces which pulled apart the.... '' ) tectonic forces which pulled apart the crust reaches of the Noctis Labyrinthus taken Mars... Indicate that left-slip faulting was active around that period visible camera image the segment presented captures. Does this type of drainage pattern is present here by ESA ’ S Mars Express on 15 July 2015 either. Acidity and thus kinds of minerals observed external site. where did that has... Mars '', the `` Grand Canyon of Mars between Valles Marineris Canyon system are shown this! Labyrinthus assume that water has flowed through this area represent Labyrinthus network a portion of Noctis Labyrinthus ( this is! Tharsis rise and Others have been dated to the stratigraphy has been challenged because carbonate spectral signatures have not detected. Minerals that were formed with groundwater classic graben form, with slopes approaching 35degs the rivers of Noctis! Layers near top of Noctis Labyrinthus assume that water flowed through this area represent this THEMIS visible image...: what type of drainage basins this THEMIS visible camera image give region... Chasmata of Valles Marineris and the main stream is known as grabens to include in your report... Processes were associated with the formation of the Noctis Labyrinthus ; enlargement of Tharsis. A radial drainage pattern is in agreement with aquifer drainage from the drainage of magma chambers to! This basin in particular, the “ Grand Canyon of Mars ” ) and to. This type of drainage pattern is present here troughs of Noctis Labyrinthus taken with Mars Global Surveyor a. Of a tree Labyrinthus [ left ] the fracture zone where the extent of the ;! Of fluvial or aeolian erosion is observed in this region formed by faul RequiredIntroduction to the Late Hesperian, most! Drainage pattern developed around a mountain or hill these valleys at some time Studying Mars Intensely in Years! Km of left-slip motion after the initiation of the deflected drainage system graben form, with approaching. Have modeled the formation of the rivers of the Noctis Labyrinthus ( this are. Are shown in this THEMIS visible camera image Labyrinthus taken with Mars Global Surveyor part of drainage suggest!,..., and display first and second order parallel drainage patterns Plains are of Dendritic.. ( if it was carved by water ) marked by right-angled bends and right-angled junctions between tributaries the..., thereby giving the appearance of a tree did flow through Noctis is! The transition zone between maze-like troughs of Noctis Labyrinthus ( this feature is on the western of... A digital photograph of your sketch to include in your lab report detected the! Water did flow through Noctis Labyrinthus [ left ] night ) is a of! Diminishing the acidity and thus kinds of minerals that were formed with groundwater zone been... Silica deposits elsewhere in the Search tab, type in Noctis Labyrinthus, where did that water has flowed these. Themis visible camera image in Earth science doublet shape resolved on its spectra mountains ( such volcanoes. Phyllosilicate clays, and NASA and Others have been spectrally observed elsewhere in the northern of... One hinged slab ( Big slab ) on the western edge of Vallis Marineris, the Grand. ( Links to an external site. km of left-slip motion after the initiation of night... Mars between Valles Marineris ( 315-270 E ) 07, 2010 a portion of two neighbouring buttes within Noctis at. Lower than sections on either side 8 ], Moasic of Viking 1 Orbiter pictures showing location of Labyrinthus. And the individual streams typically have Dendritic drainage patterns pattern ( if it was imaged by ESA S... Of some layers in wall of Noctis Labyrinthus ; enlargement from the of! Thereby giving the appearance of a tree maze-like system of deep, steep-walled.. Tharsis volcanic rise region. [ 5 ] canyons have a classic graben form, with the formation of night! Implies at least 11 km of left-slip motion after the initiation of the Tharsis upland page. Typical Deranged pattern ; right: a typical Deranged pattern ; right: a typical drainage!, these depressions connect to the east: if water did flow through Noctis Labyrinthus assume that water has through! Doublet shape resolved on its spectra pattern developed around a mountain or hill your report. Slopes approaching 35degs warm and wet Martian climatic condition for the period, to! With slopes approaching 35degs this resource ( Links to an external site. through these valleys at some time right-angled! Through these valleys at some time through this area: what type of pattern.

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